Artist’s Proofs are usually the same as the edition in
quality and image though they are outside the numbered edition. They are
identified by “A.P.” or Artist Proof on the impression. Because they are
artist’s proofs, they do have the ability to vary in colors. They are often
retained by the artist or publisher, but frequently are used as an extension of
the edition. The French version is also seen sometimes, Epreuve d’artiste or E.A.
The same as chop but stamped with ink on verso of the
print. See also Chop.
|BON A TIRER
A literal translation from French Meaning "good to pull"
and refers to the first print the artist decides to use for the edition. B.A.T.
A Process in which one sheet of paper is adhered to
another by pressuring, usually a thin paper laminated to backing during the
An identifying mark embossed on a print to identify the
workshop, printer or publisher. Different from Chop Mark used as an identifying
signature stamped on the artwork. Common in Asian prints.
Proofs of each separate color of a multicolor print. Used
in layering process of printing one on top of the other.
|COLOR TRIAL PROOF
This term may be used to annotate Trial Proofs or T.P.
These proofs may be done using the same plates as in the edition, but the color
can vary from those used in the edition. Sometimes these are signed and sold by
the artist or given to the printer.
The uneven edge on handmade paper or mould on paper.
Deckled edges can also be achieved by the artist tearing freehand the edge of
the paper to give it an intended uneven edge.
Used in Etching, it is drawing on metal plate with a
needle of hard steel, often with a diamond point. The groove that is created
hold the ink and the “burr” that is formed along the edge of the scratch from
the displaced metal traps additional ink for a soft and rich effect.
Total number of prints pulled from one image and
represents the largest body of work for sale from that image. These prints are
consecutively numbered to show that the edition is limited by publisher or
artist. Example: 25/300 means that this is the 25th print in an edition of 300.
Editions vary in size and sometimes are duplicated on different types of paper
or in different color states. It is good to know what the entire edition
A method of drawing that employs a burin or graver to cut
or incise on a metal plate. Different from drypoint, this method actually
removes displaced metal creating a clean and exact line.
An intaglio Process in which the lowered printing areas
are bitten and etched by acid. The drawing and preparation of the plate can be
accomplished with a variety of techniques dealt with elsewhere in this glossary.
See Hardground, Sugar Lift and Softground. Aquatinting is a process of creating
soft pits to the plate by the use of acid and resists that allows the ink to
hang gently on the surface of the plate imitating a watercolor effect.
French for “to spit” the Giclee printing process is new
and a result of the digital world. Artwork digitally captured is processed
through a computer and then can be printed out on any number of surfaces from
paper to canvas to mimic the original.
|HORS DE COMMERCE
These prints are outside the edition but are the same as
the edition and are used as gifts or payments to those involved in the
production of the edition. They are designated H.C. opposite the artist’s
A term applied to any work from a printing element.
A general term covering the printing process such as
engraving, aquatint, mezzotint, and etching. Any process in which the image is
cut, engraved or etched below the surface of a metal plate. The typical plate
materials are made of zinc, copper or steel.
|LIGHT SENSITIVE PLATE
A Plate treated with a light sensitive coating which all
receive a photographic image either in lithographic or intaglio processes.
A Print Made by using a metal plate cut with an engraving tool.
Relief Process in which the image is cut into the linoleum block. The printing
surface being the raised portions of the block. Color linocuts can be made from
one block of linoleum and are called Reduction linocuts and by multiple blocks
printed in layers.
|LITHOGRAPHIC CRAYONS AND
Crayons and pencils of a greasy
substance used in drawing for lithography.
A process based on the natural repulsion between the grease and water. Image is
drawn on stone, aluminum or zinc plates, or both with greasy drawing materials.
The image is then chemically processed so that the drawn area accepts grease
(ink) and the non - image area water. Unlike intaglio printing the image and
non-image areas are both on the same plane or level.
An intaglio process in which the surface of the plate is scored by a spur
like"rocker" so that it is completely roughened. The plate is then smoothed in
areas to produce modulated tones of light and dark values.
A method in which the acid is applied directly to the plate and then quickly
removed by any variety of liquids. The acid eats the surface of the plate to
varying depths and allows the ink to hang into those recesses.
A tool used in silkscreen to apply ink or paint to material to be printed. A
wooden bar and rubber blade forces ink through the screen. A squeegee allows for
an even spread of ink through the screen.
The alteration of an editioned image, plate, stone or stencil creating a new or
related image. The new image may be printed in an edition with all impressions
designated "state" I, II, III, IV, or more.
A print made by applying color to an etching plate by use of a metal or paper
stencil before printing by rolling the color onto an inked plate.
Bavarian limestone is used in the medium of lithography. This is the element
that the artist draws on to create the print image. Bavarian limestone is no
longer being quarried and are in very short supply. Metal plates have taken over
most of used lithographic surfaces now.
The Image is drawn on the plate with brush or pen and sugar ink (a mixture of
sugar and India ink). The plate is covered with hardground and impressed in hot
water to dissolve the sugar, lifting the hardground with it. The plate is then
etched in the normal manner.
Method of drawing in which artist works on a specially coated paper or surface
other than the intended printing element. The Drawing is then transferred to
metal or stone which is then processed for printing.
A proof that varies from the edition either in color, size, drawing, printing
order, etc. these proofs are usually pulled before the artist has arrived at the
final decision for the edition. These prints are usually unique impressions
which may be retained by the artist and are not numbered in any manner.
Paper used by the artist to draw on that is transferred to plate or stone. With
this method the image need not be drawn in reverse.
A print using a vegetable such as a potato as the inked element. The surface of
a potato is carved out in relief and then used as a stamp.
The mark that paper makers form in their papers by sewing the design into the
mold before the papermaking process. The watermark can be seen when held to the
light as it is more translucent than the light.
A relief process in which the image is cut in a block of wood with tools such as
knives, goughers or chisels. The image is inked with a roller, paper is applied
to the surface and the back is then rubbed by hand or with a rubbing tool,
transferring the image to the paper.
A relief process in which the image is cut into the end grain of a block of wood
using engraving tools. This process produces a very fine white line.
Used for both lithography and intaglio processes. This is the plate that is used
to draw or etch on before the inking and then printing.